• 承认轻微伤害,严重伤害和危及生命的伤害。
    • 识别应联系指示EMS(紧急医疗服务)的迹象和症状。
    • Assess how to respond to an injury.

    It is very important that you take a course in first-aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This lesson does not replace that course. This lesson only provides a brief introduction to keeping children safe when they are injured.


    Children are natural explorers. Have you ever thought, “That child has no fear!”? You were probably right: Children do not always recognize the danger in situations. They challenge their developing bodies and minds. In school-age programs, we have to be prepared to respond to a range of injuries. Some injuries will only require cleaning and bandaging. Other injuries require immediate medical attention. You must be able to tell the difference between the two. You must be prepared to respond during any situation. Consider these examples:

    1. 随着西蒙爬上梯子,她扭转了她的脚踝,向后落到地上。她的左脚变成了一个尴尬的角度。
    2. Dante and Claire are chasing one another on the paved path through their play area. Dante trips and skins his knee.
    3. 麦迪逊和特里斯坦正在打篮球。麦迪逊迅速停止。特里斯坦无法及时停止并努力进入麦迪逊。两个孩子都堕落。麦迪逊在Gound上击中了嘴巴,然后失去牙齿。
    4. 卢克在去爸爸的车的路上把他的足球放下。它滚入停车场,他破折号才能得到它。一个迎面而来的车辆无法及时停止念念他。
    5. 路易斯将身份不明的药丸带到您的计划中,并与他的朋友分享他们。
    6. Millie is giggling with her friends during lunch. Suddenly she begins to choke. She cannot cough or make any sounds.

    Your program space is designed to minimize risks when accidents occur. For example, properly inspected playground equipment and cushioned fall zones make it unlikely Simone would be seriously injured in a fall from the slide. The safety rules you teach make it less likely children will collide with one another at high speeds. Even in the best situations, though, accidents happen. You must be prepared to act on injuries big and small. Some injuries are small and only require minor first-aid. For example, when Dante skins his knee, the staff member will likely respond by cleaning the wound, applying a bandage, and completing an incident report. Dante is able to continue playing.

    其他伤害are serious but not life threatening. For example, Madison and Simone may need medical treatment for their injuries, but they are not likely to face permanent disability or death.



    • Perform, or find someone who is trained to perform, first-aid or CPR. Training on first-aid and CPR is offered by your employer and community agencies, such as the Red Cross.
    • 在国际地点致电紧急医疗服务(EMS)或其等同物。EMS指您所在地区的任何紧急响应者。这些可能是消防员,救护车或警方。当您在美国拨打911时达到EMS服务。在美国之外,与您的主管,教练或教练讨论如何获得紧急医疗服务。


    You must know what to look for when you are deciding how to respond to an injury.


    If a child has any of the following symptoms, call EMS right away:

    • You believe the child’s life is at risk or there is a risk of permanent injury.
    • The child has difficulty breathing, is having an asthma exacerbation, or is unable to speak.
    • 孩子的皮肤或嘴唇看起来很蓝,紫色或灰色。
    • 孩子的武器和腿部有节奏的刺激性以及意识丧失(癫痫发作)。
    • The child is unconscious.
    • 孩子越来越响应。
    • 头部受伤后,孩子有以下任何一种:减少警觉性,混乱,头痛,呕吐,烦躁或行走困难。
    • 孩子患上任何地方的疼痛都会增加或严重。
    • The child has a cut or burn that is large, deep, or won’t stop bleeding.
    • 孩子是吐血。
    • 孩子颈部严重僵硬,头痛和发烧。
    • 孩子有明显脱水:沉思的眼睛,昏昏欲睡,没有泪水,不排尿。
    • Multiple children are affected by injury or serious illness at the same time.
    • When in doubt, call EMS.

    Follow your程式policies if a child has any of the following symptoms or get medical attention within one hour:

    • Fever in any age child who looks more than mildly ill
    • 快速蔓延紫色或红色皮疹
    • A large volume of blood in the stool
    • 可能需要针脚的切割
    • 任何需要父母通知的儿童护理计划中专门概述的任何医疗状况




    • 保持冷静。
    • Survey the scene.Look around and find out what is wrong. Decide whether it is safe for you to approach. Tell the child you are there to help. Ask questions and examine the child head-to-toe for injuries.
    • 采取行动。Decide whether injuries are life threatening: Is the child conscious? Is the child breathing? If the child is not breathing, perform CPR as needed. Use what you learned in your first-aid and CPR training to do the procedure correctly. If the injury is not life threatening, check the child head-to-toe. Look for all injuries. Ask the child questions and continue to check breathing and heart rate. Perform any basic first-aid that is needed. Do not move the child unless his or her life is at risk.
    • 打电话。决定你是否需要打电话给EMS。打电话给孩子的家人。
    • Ride along.准备骑在救护车上的孩子。了解您需要随身携带的文件和联系信息。
    • 做cument.使用工作场所提供的表格报告伤害。



    It is important to think about what you would do during stressful situations. Read the questions in the反应伤害活动并写下您的回复。用管理员,教练或培训师谈谈你的答案。然后将您的答案与建议的答案密钥进行比较。







    Which of the following is not a life- threatening situation?


    Which of these situations does not require a call to 911 (or the local emergency number)?


    Which of these statements is true?

    References & Resources:

    American Academy Of Pediatrics, American Public Health Association, National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education (2011). Caring for Our Children: National health and safety performance standards; Guidelines for early care and education programs. 3rd edition. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; Washington, DC: American Public Health Association. Also available athttp://nrckids.org.